copper sulfate (cuso4・5h2o)
copper(ii) sulfate pentahydrate (cas # 7758-99-8) is an odorless and a very potent algicide approved under the us epa for water reservoirs including potable water sources. it is used in large quantities in aquaculture and contained artificial ponds, where toxicity is a minor issue.
the lake guard blue™ is designed to minimize the dosage as well as the operational costs associated with the application of copper sulfate to a fraction of their current levels.
铜(ii)硫酸五水化物(cas # 7758-99-8)是一种无味和一个非常强大的杀藻剂批准根据美国环保署等水库饮用水来源。它包含大量用于水产养殖和人工池塘,毒性是一个次要问题。
the lake guard blue™旨在减少剂量以及与应用程序相关的运营成本的硫酸铜的当前水平的一小部分。
sodium percarbonate (2 na₂co₃ · 3 h₂o₂))
sodium percarbonate (aka ‘sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate’; cas# 15630-89-4) is an odorless algaecide composed of soda ash and hydrogen peroxide (h₂o₂) which is considered to be the most environmentally friendly algaecide commercially available for the treatment of cyanobacteria. however, and although approved under the us epa, its overall usage is quite limited. the major reason this compound did not establish itself as a viable solution are high operational costs. in addition, and unlike copper or chlorine-based compounds, its active oxygen concentration is relatively low, badly impacting its potency – especially in the context of a full lake treatment and the potential for dilution.
moreover, the use of liquid h₂o₂ poses serious dangers, as large quantities of the compound have to be carried on boats where they may cause significant safety issues, including combustion or physical exposure to leaks.
in contrast, the lake guard h₂o₂™ dramatically reduces the operational costs associated with the application of hydrogen peroxide, as the product travels independently on the currents along the cyanobacteria. its ability to effectively target the cyanobacteria spatially as well as vertically, further reduces the overall input required to achieve effective concentrations of h2o2 where needed. coming in dry, granular form, it requires no special preparation or equipment reducing unneeded exposure by operators to a minimum.
相比之下,the lake guard blue h₂o₂™大大降低了啊
calcium hypochlorite (ca(clo)₂)
calcium hypochlorite (cas# 7778-54-3) is commonly used as an algicide (under nsf/ansi 60 where it is limited to 15 mg/l), as well as a bactericide, deodorant, disinfectant, fungicide and so on.
hypochlorite is widely used in the cooling-water systems of power plants. these facilities have been authorized by regulators worldwide to treat the systems with chlorine in order to avoid biofouling. free chlorine is later being discharged in massive quantities to adjunct water bodies. this method is regarded as ‘the best available method’ in terms of biocidal efficiency and cost effectiveness (hergott et al., 1978). the us code of federal regulations (40 cfr 423) dictates limitations on the concentration of free-chlorine and the permissible amount of chlorinated water discharge to be released into a water body per day per reactor. and yet, a power plant with a standard daily flow of five million cubic liters can release up to 200,000 kg of free-chlorine into the adjacent pond on an annual basis (see table 3.1 in pacey et al., 2011). comprehensive environmental studies that have been conducted by various environmental protection agencies showed that this mass discharge of chlorine had insignificant adverse effects on fauna and flora (e.g. brungs, 1973; hergott et al., 1978; sung et al., 1978; pacey et al., 2011; ma et al., 2011). moreover, studies also showed that residual chlorine byproducts from these practices, such as trihalomethanes, were found below harmful levels (hollod and wilde, 1982; jenner et al., 1997; jenner and wither, 2011).
nevertheless, hypochlorite of any type has never been registered as an algaecide for freshwater bodies and therefore is currently not approved for use as an algaecide in surface water.
bluegreen’s past field trials with this compound have confirmed that treatment with chlorine concentrations of under 5 g/m2 had no effect on fish, seabirds or turtles.
moreover, our hypochlorite-based formulation (lake guard white™) was found to fully release its chlorine content within 60 minutes from application and to interact with the existing organic load in the water, after which total-chlorine could not be detected in the water (<0.01 ppm). in contradiction to in-vitro tests done in purified water (i.e. clasen and edmondson, 2006) this rapid interaction released all bound chlorine regardless of the ph range in the ponds (~ph 8.0).
次氯酸钙(cas # 7778-54-3)通常被用作杀藻剂(nsf / ansi 60,限于15 mg / l),以及杀菌剂,除臭剂,消毒剂,杀菌剂等。
次氯酸盐广泛应用于电站的冷却系统。这些设施已经被全球监管机构授权处理系统与氯为了避免生物淤积。游离氯是后来出院了大量兼职水体。这种方法被认为是“*好的方法”的杀生的效率和成本效益(hergott et al .,1978)。美国联邦法规(40 cfr 423)规定限制游离氯的浓度和容许量的氯化水排放被释放到水体每天每个反应堆。然而,发电厂和一个标准的每日五百万立方升流可以释放多达200000公斤的游离氯邻池塘
phosphate is a well known factor in cyanobacterial succession over other microorganisms in aquatic habitats. it is therefore logical that eliminating phosphates from the water leads to a decline in cyanobacterial infestations. compounds such as aluminum sulfate and phoslock efficiently bind to phosphates and sink to the sediment. in some cases, treatment of a whole lake with these compounds may prevent a few seasonal blooms.
similar to treatments with copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide, treatments with phosphate binders are applied subsurface, thus limiting the feasible scale for treatment, making it extremely expensive.
while considered a “preventative” measure against cyanobacterial blooms, the treatment is only effective to the extent it is able to bind with sufficient amounts of phosphate in the water. given the abundant sources of phosphates from catchment areas, the effect of these treatments is usually short-living. in addition, and although seldom addressed, treatment with phosphate binders include drastic amounts of binders, which in turn “rains” over the sediment and chokes it. it is important to remember that bound phosphates remain in the ecosystem and under some conditions (heavy storms and water mixing) can be re-released into the water column. worse off, the bound phosphates are regularly consumed by “bottom feeders” such as carp and are easily disturbed and compromised by normal wind and wave action in shallow lakes.
considering the overall (limited) demand to treatment with alum salts, bluegreen is currently developing an alum-based product, the , which will remove all operational obstacles associated with aluminum treatment for end users wishing to implement it.
barley / rice straw
placing barley or rice straw into aquatic ecosystems has been practiced in some places with an inconsistent effect. a recent discovery of the active compounds released from the straw (flavonolignans salcolin a and b) did demonstrate a lytic effect on microcystis aeruginosa. however, these active compounds are not commercially available and have yet to obtain the required environmental and regulatory clearances which are likely to require long-term toxicology and environmental-impact studies.
把大麦或稻草水生生态系统已经在一些地方不一致的影响。最近发现的活性化合物释放稻草(flavonolignans salcolin a和b)演示了对绿脓微胞藻属溶解性的影响。然而,这些活性化合物还没有商业化,并获得所需的环境和监管许可,可能需要长期毒理学和环境影响研究。